Summary: Raoult's Law and Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium
  1. Raoult's law assumes ideal gases and ideal liquid solution. For similar molecules (e.g., n-hexane and n-octane), Raoult's law may be a good approximation.
  2. When a vapor mixture is cooled or its pressure is increased, both components condense.
  3. Bubble pressure is the pressure where the first bubble of vapor forms as the pressure above a liquid decreases at constant temperature.
  4. Bubble temperature is the temperature where the first bubble of vapor forms as the temperature of a liquid increases at constant pressure.
  5. Dew pressure is the pressure where the first drop of liquid forms as the pressure of a vapor increases at constant temperature.
  6. Dew temperature is the temperature where the first drop of liquid forms as the temperature of a vapor decreases at constant pressure.
  7. Unlike a pure component, at constant pressure a mixture does not evaporate at constant temperature.